Download China’s Foreign Aid and Investment Diplomacy, Volume I: by John F. Copper PDF
By John F. Copper
This three-volume paintings is the 1st finished examine of China's international reduction and funding international relations to track its evolution because the founding of PRC in 1949. quantity I examines the definitions, origins, nature, and scope of China's overseas relief and funding and exhibits that China has a extra salient historical past of giving than the other country.
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Extra resources for China’s Foreign Aid and Investment Diplomacy, Volume I: Nature, Scope, and Origins
169 Indeed they are. Further, as its aid and investments became much larger, Western countries began to criticize China’s aid more, pointing out that China disregards good governance, does not promote democracy, and makes human rights conditions worse with its aid (because its financial assistance helps prop up Nature and Scope of China’s Foreign Aid ● 27 authoritarian regimes). Critics complained that China gives aid only to gain resources and to capture markets. A few even remarked on how China uses its own labor and does not employ people locally, flaunts local labor and environmental laws, and worse.
181 Notwithstanding these quite formidable obstacles, there have been a number of published reports emanating both from Western and Chinese government agencies and even in books written by academics stating the value of Nature and Scope of China’s Foreign Aid ● 29 Chinese foreign aid and foreign investments to various countries and regions of the world and even its total aid during specific periods of time. The writer will cite some of the published data later in the chapter. The main purpose in doing this is to provide the reader with some notion of the scope of China’s foreign aid and foreign investments, or what observers thought them to be, during certain periods, and to various nations and to let the reader understand that there are serious inconsistencies in the use of the terms as well as disagreements about the numbers, not to mention questions about how the data should be interpreted.
Western sources have provided data on China’s “arms transfers” but have not defined transfer precisely. 228 There are, of course, some important caveats concerning these figures. First, there is no attempt to separate military aid in the form of grants from arms sales, or if the latter what portion is paid for by Chinese loans. Second, these data do not include China’s extensive arms aid to North Vietnam (and later Vietnam), North Korea, and Albania. 230 No analyst has put a value on this. Likewise nothing is said about profits made by some Nature and Scope of China’s Foreign Aid ● 35 of China’s recipient nations selling weapons and even nuclear technology to other countries.