Download Anatomy and Human Movement. Structure and Function by Nigel Palastanga PDF

By Nigel Palastanga

For the second one version, the textual content and illustrations were reorganized and plenty of of the diagrams were redrawn or changed. New sections at the cardiovascular, breathing, digestive and urogenital platforms, and at the eye and the ear were additional, in addition to new textual content on practical actions, palpation and utilized anatomy. additionally, the part masking the top, neck and trunk has been thoroughly reorganized. however, the preliminary objective of the textual content has been retained in order that it is still a textbook primarily curious about the musculoskeletal procedure and its program to human circulate

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Extra resources for Anatomy and Human Movement. Structure and Function

Sample text

6 a) The vestibular system; b) the labyrinth and spiral organ; c) conversion of sound waves into mechanical vibrations (schematic diagram). 58 ANATOMY AND HUMAN MOVEMENT THE EYE The eyeball consists of three concentric layers, an outer fibrous supporting layer comprising the sclera and cornea; a middle vascular, pigmented layer comprising the choroid, ciliary body and iris; and an inner layer of nerve elements, the retina. The interior of the eyeball contains fluid under pressure and is divided into anterior and posterior compartments, containing aqueous humour and the vitreous body respectively, by the lens and its attachments (Fig.

In the stratum granulosum the cells become increasingly flattened and the process of keratinization begins. The cells in this layer are in the process of dying. A relatively thin transparent layer (the stratum lucidum) lies between the granulosum and the superficial stratum corneum. It is this latter layer from which the cells are shed, and also which is mainly responsible for the thickness of the skin. The epidermal melanocytes, which are responsible for the pigmentation of the skin, lie within the deepest layers of the epidermis.

At the beginning of the second month the elbow and knee prominences can be seen projecting laterally and backwards. At about the same time, the hand and foot plates appear as flattened expansions at the end of the limb bud. Between 36 and 38 days, five radiating thickenings forming the fingers and toes can be distinguished. The webs between the thickenings disappear freeing the digits. Appropriate spinal nerves grow down to the limbs: C5, 6, 7, 8 and T l for the upper: limb, and L4, 5, S I , 2 and 3 for the lower limb.

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