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By N. Bowditch

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The next column is a text description of the symbol, term, or abbreviation. The next column contains the IHO standard symbol. The last column shows certain symbols used on foreign reproduction charts produced by DMA. NAUTICAL CHARTS Figure 330. S. Chart No. 1. 39 40 NAUTICAL CHARTS 331. Lettering Except on some modified reproductions of foreign charts, cartographers have adopted certain lettering standards. Vertical type is used for features which are dry at high water and not affected by movement of the water; slanting type is used for underwater and floating features.

A line or bar called a graphic scale may be drawn at a convenient place on the chart and subdivided into nautical miles, meters, etc. All charts vary somewhat in scale from point to point, and in some projections the scale is not the same in all directions about a single point. A single subdivided line or bar for use over an entire chart is shown only when the chart is of such scale and projection that the scale varies a negligible amount over the chart, usually one of about 1:75,000 or larger.

However, since it is not conformal, this projection is not customarily used in navigation. 315. Azimuthal Projections Figure 313. A secant cone for a conic projection with two standard parallels. If in such a projection the spacing of the parallels is altered, such that the distortion is the same along them as along the meridians, the projection becomes conformal. This modification produces the Lambert conformal projection. If the chart is not carried far beyond the standard parallels, and if these are not a great distance apart, the distortion over the entire chart is small.

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