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By Grant N. Marshall

Reviews that tension can produce myriad overall healthiness results, and those results can happen themselves as signs and stipulations just like those who veterans document.

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Additional info for A Review of the Scientific Literature As It Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses, Volume 4: Stress (Gulf War Illnesses Series)

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Similar differences were found between deployed and nondeployed National Guard/Reserve personnel. , 1995). For example, active duty deployed troops compared to nondeployed troops reported significantly higher symptom levels (in 20 out of 23 symptoms measured) including: headaches (45 percent versus 24 percent), back problems (29 percent versus 15 percent), allergies (13 percent versus 9 percent) stomach upset (22 percent versus 8 percent) muscle aches (27 percent versus 13 percent), and aching joints (31 percent versus 16 percent).

The unexpected and rapid nature of the deployment created personal and family hardships, especially for members of reserve-component units. Once in theater, military personnel said they confronted a myriad of stress points: crowded or austere living conditions, long work days, a harsh climate, confinement to base camps with little opportunity for customary recreational outlets, separation from loved ones, and nearly total isolation from indigenous populations. Uncertainty about the length and nature of the mission compounded these hardships.

Deployment to the Persian Gulf theater exposed combatants and noncombatants to a wide range of stressful circumstances as self-reported by veterans. This stress exposure varied across different phases of the deployment. While the shooting war was brief and brisk, it was preceded by an abrupt, rapid mobilization and a prolonged build-up phase characterized by high levels of stress in anticipation of impending conflict. Although these exposures were not reported to be stressful by all personnel, large numbers reported experiencing moderate to high levels of perceived stress resulting from various experiences.

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