Download Toward More Sustainable Infrastructure: Project Evaluation by Carl D. Martland PDF
By Carl D. Martland
Undertaking overview provides equipment for comparing initiatives and courses aimed toward bettering the functionality and sustainability of infrastructure initiatives. It introduces method functionality, innovations of sustainability, tools of engineering economics, and offers a variety of case stories, examples, and routines dependent upon genuine international difficulties. The textual content is designed to help the knowledge of why significant infrastructure initiatives are undertaken, how they're dependent and evaluated, and the way they're financed.
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Extra resources for Toward More Sustainable Infrastructure: Project Evaluation for Planners and Engineers
Of course, as Freud pointed out in his book, Civilization and Its Discontents, crowding vast numbers of people into cities may not be good for everyone. The more we protect ourselves from natural disasters, and the more contact we are forced to have with each other, the more difficult it may be for us to live together. There is not only the loss of self-sufficiency that may be achievable on a farm, but there is also the possibility of extreme poverty. A city is dependent upon its infrastructure—and transportation or water resource systems may fail.
For it is absurd to suppose, given the amount of ugliness and suffering the world still affords, that we have run out of work: what we have run out of is a set of organized connections between purposes crying to be achieved and people crying out for purpose. Eric Larrabee, former associate editor of Harper’s, ‘‘Time to Kill: Automation, Leisure, and Jobs,’’ Nation, 100th Anniversary Issue, September 20, 1965. 1 OVERVIEW OF PROJECT EVALUATION Where Do Projects Come From? A project begins long before the groundbreaking, long before the first contract is signed, and long before a specific plan is identified and agreed upon by people with the resources and political power to make something happen.
4 Average Cost and Marginal Cost for the Linear Cost Function C ¼ 50 þ V It is common to find a trade-off between two options, one of which has higher fixed cost but lower marginal cost. 50. The break-even point is at 90 units per day: above this level, option 2 is preferred; below this level, option 1 is preferred. For linear functions of the type TC ¼ a þ bV, the break-even point (Vb) can readily be calculated: If TC1 ¼ a1 þ b1 V and TC2 ¼ a2 þ b2 V then, at the point where the costs are equal for the two technologies, the following equation will hold: a1 þ b1 Vb ¼ a2 þ b2 Vb Solving for Vb yields: Vb ¼ ða2 À a1 Þ=ðb1 À b2 Þ (Eq.