Download The Perfect Heresy: The Life and Death of the Cathars by Stephen O'Shea PDF
By Stephen O'Shea
8 hundred years in the past, the Cathars, a gaggle of heretical Christians from all walks of society, low and high, flourished in what's now the Languedoc in Southern France. Their subversive ideals introduced down on them the wrath of Popes and monarchs and provoked a brutal 'Crusade' opposed to them. the ultimate defeat of the Cathars used to be terrible with mass burnings of fellows, ladies and youngsters within the village of Montaillou within the Pyrenees.
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Extra resources for The Perfect Heresy: The Life and Death of the Cathars
Next Armigerous. Term used now for someone entitled to bear heraldic arms. – Cf. previous Armil. A bracelet, part of the royal *regalia; also, later, a stole used at coronations, made of cloth of gold, which indicated the sacerdotal aspect of a king conferred by anointing. Arms, Assize of. 1181. This *assize extended the obligations of military equipment and service to those not previously affected. Under *fyrd law, only free landholders had been liable. This assize summoned all burgesses, all freeholders, regardless of wealth; also included were artisans and traders with income of 10 marks or more a year.
Astronomy then was based upon Ptolemy of Alexandria’s *Almagest, written in the second quarter of the 2c. ) The text was translated from the Greek into Arabic in the early 9c, and from Arabic into Latin in the 12c. The Ptolemaic description of the universe was geocentric; it was argued that since all objects fall to the centre of the universe, objects that were dropped on earth would fall elsewhere than to earth if it were not the centre of the universe. Not until Copernicus (d. 1543) was it shown that the earth moved.
Another term for a *mullet. Astrolabe. A device for use in making astronomical measurements, in particular for measuring the altitude of stars. – Cf. Alidad Astrology. Intense interest in astrology emerged in 14c England, prompted by that century’s calamities of plague and famine; it was vigorously condemned by the Church, but this did not diminish its popularity or persistence. It came into England from the world of the Arabic scholars. Astronomy. Astronomy was one of the subjects of the medieval *quadrivium.