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By Donald Maddox

During this research of vernacular French narrative from the 12th century throughout the later heart a long time, Donald Maddox considers the development of id in quite a lot of fictions. He makes a speciality of an important encounters, frequent in medieval literature, during which characters are trained approximately basic facets in their personal situations and selfhood.

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Many of our examples are taken from romances, lais, and related genres, where they are more numerous and used in more systematic ways, both in exemplars of verse romance and in prose works. Yet the schema also comes to prominence in epic, drama, fabliau, and didactic narratives. 68 One anticipates ± in fact assumes ± that readers familiar with medieval literature and indeed with the literatures of other periods and societies, will be reminded of pertinent examples in works not addressed in this study, and that others may be prompted to entertain the concept of ``specular encounter'' in relation to other texts and other periods, thus continuing what can only be an initial exploration within the necessarily limited con®nes of our investigation here.

11 The informant's metamorphosis from mater to mediatrix of the hero's relation to the feminine sphere would thus betoken his move into the sphere of heterosexual love. Although a reading of descriptive details as signi®ers of affect might seem anachronistically ``psychoanalytic,'' works from remote periods do at times convey remarkably ``analytic'' insights. 12 The wound in¯icted upon the hind dissipates its maternal image and elicits its naming of the hero's lack in the feminine sphere. 14 The double wounding is seen retrospectively as pre®gurative of the double amatory wound suffered equally by hero and lady.

64), he is fully responsive to the dark allure of the forest: ``Talent li prist d'aler chacier . . / Kar cil deduiz forment li plest'' (76; 80) [He was taken by a desire to go hunting . . for that pastime pleased him immensely]. The enticement of cynegetic pleasures offers a seductive threshold, beyond which the unanticipated occurs. As in the Vie de Saint Eustace and Flaubert's tale, we move from a 26 The specular encounter in ®ctions of reciprocity full-scale chase to the hunter's isolation with one speci®c quarry.

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