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Extra info for Evaluation and Experiment. Some Critical Issues in Assessing Social Programs

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It is also necessary that his relationship to the program and his understanding of program goals and objectives be such that these features of comprehensive evaluation can be effectively incorporated. Too often, the evaluation of social programs takes place after the fact rather than as a planned part of the program. Yet the usual experience is that attempts to decide how a program should be evaluated lead to reorientation, as well as needed elaboration, of the program's purposes. These changes should be incorporated into the process of program planning and development, rather than being tacked on as an after-thought after the program is under way.

In the initial design--the observed control method-- the plan was to give the vaccine to those second graders whose parents volunteered them for the study, to give nothing to the first and third graders, and then to compare the average result for the untreated first and third grade with the treated group in the second grade. There are troubles here. In the more sanitary neighborhoods, polio occurs more frequently than in unsanitary neighborhoods, and the more sanitary regions are associated with higher income and better education.

1. , 1967. Scriven, M. Maximizing the power of causal investigations: In W. ), The modus operandi method. BerkeEvaluation in education: Current applications. ley: McCutcheon, 1975. Stufflebaum, D. , et al. Educational evaluation and deciF. E. : sion making. , 1971. Between the cup and the lip. Evaluation, Weiss, C. H. 1973, 1(2), 49-55. 37 CARL A. GENNETT AND ARTHUR A. LUMSDAINE Wild, H. A. D. Causal inference from observational data: A review of ends and means. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 1956, 119, Part I, 28-61.

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