Download Environmental Policy Convergence in Europe: The Impact of by Katharina Holzinger PDF
By Katharina Holzinger
Has globalisation resulted in a convergence in policy-making throughout countries and, if that is so, what are the causal mechanisms? This e-book analyses the level to which the environmental rules of country states have converged during the last thirty years and no matter if this convergence ended in a strengthening or weakening of environmental criteria (a race to the head, or a race to the bottom). It additionally analyses the standards that account for those advancements. according to a different empirical facts set, the research covers the improvement of quite a lot of environmental rules in twenty 4 OECD nations, together with ecu contributors States in addition to Norway, Switzerland, Japan, Mexico and america, with specific emphasis at the impression of institutional and fiscal interlinkages between those international locations.
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Extra resources for Environmental Policy Convergence in Europe: The Impact of International Institutions and Trade
Focusing on transfer, diffusion or isomorphism would lead us to neglect important aspects of environmental policy change. In a large-n study we measure and explain the convergence of forty environmental policies in twenty-four mostly European countries over a period of thirty years. We do not restrict ourselves to measuring the extent and direction of policy convergence but we aim at explaining the increase in policy similarity by a whole bundle of potential driving factors of homogenisation of policies.
However, international driving forces did not affect all policy innovations and all countries alike, but were either enforced or hampered by the properties of individual policy innovations and a wide array of factors at the domestic level. Besides the three groups of international mechanisms, independent responses to pressing environmental problems also played an important role in the observed policy convergence. In North America scholars have focused repeatedly on the transfer and convergence of environmental policies between Canada and the US.
C o n c e p t ua l i s i n g e n v i ro n m e n t a l p o l i c y c o n v e r g e n c e 19 While comparative studies started out looking for crossnational difference and found a surprising amount of similarity, Europeanisation research and international studies approached the subject of environmental policy convergence exactly the opposite way. Scholars of Europeanisation quickly detected that the powerful economic as well as political homogenising pressures within the EU do not necessarily lead to uniform action at the level of member states, but often produce a quite heterogeneous patchwork of institutions, instruments and policy styles (He´ritier and Knill 2001).