Download Environmental Conflict: An Anthology by Paul Diehl, Nils Petter Gleditsch PDF

By Paul Diehl, Nils Petter Gleditsch

As environmental defense profits expanding consciousness, there's a urgent desire for rigorous examinations of environmental reasons of clash and the potential of clash solution. Environmental clash explores the connection among environmental degradation or shortage and both intrastate or interstate violent clash. trained through theoretical views, an important energy is the point of interest on difficult empirical assessments of hypothesized relationships among environmental components and violence. making a choice on the explanations of clash might help in constructing meliorative measures. The members are eminent students who handle a urgent factor in cutting edge methods.

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Small and Singer Causal Pathways to Conflict 45 (1982: 31-47, 203-222) define civil war as 'a military conflict within a state where the national government is one of the active parties and where both parties in the conflict can and intend to struggle despite any costs'. This definition is quite similar to that used by Peter Wallensteen and Margareta Sollenberg (1997), but whereas Melvin Small and J. David Singer set their lower threshold at 1,000 battle deaths in a single year, Wallensteen and Sollenberg include all conflicts with a minimum of twenty-five annual battle deaths.

Part of the problem lies in the concept of environmental scarcity itself, since it includes other factors than actual environmental degradation. Structural scarcity, which concerns unequal distribution of resources (especially land), is mainly a consequence of politics. By disaggregating the concept, Homer-Dixon could have included theories about maldistribution of land and income inequality as a cause of conflict. As it stands, however, the politics of distribution disappear into the environmental scarcity concept.

Inadequate energy services force approximately 40 percent of the South African population—approximately 17 million people—to depend on fuelwood for cooking and heating (Whyte, 1995: 62). Estimates place the annual volume of fuelwood consumed at 11 million metric tons (Cooper and Fakir, 1994: 1). In the past fifty years, 200 of KwaZulu's 250 forests have disappeared (Wilson and Ramphele, 1989: 44). A comparison of forest consumption rates with noncommercial forest growth rates shows that all ten former homelands are in a fuel-wood deficit, with supplies expected to be almost depleted by the year 2020 (Gandar, 1991: 98-99).

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