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By Philip Sporn

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Because even in the home the availability of capital or income from which capital can be accumulated is an important determinant of energy use. I do not mean to minimize the role which low-cost electric power has played in the rapid growth of residential consumption of electric energy, but I do want to underscore the fact that that role has not been decisive. When a refrigerator, for example, costs $ 4 0 0 to $ 4 5 0 in capital outlay and the power to 38 operate it only about $ 1 5 a year, it should be apparent that what primarily determines its coming into operation is the cost of the appliance and not the cost of the power to run it.

And MAN's concern with the loftiest spiritual concepts and occupations is made almost impossible when he is under constant physical stress as an energy producer generating the equivalent of one kilowatt-hour in the course of a twelve-hour day. The beginning of use of mechanical inanimate energy made possible the beginning of employment of MAN as the wondrous creation that he is. Such use of MAN, taken together with resources, tools, machines and organization makes possible the satisfaction of human material wants and leaves time and energy available for exploring the infinities of the physical world and the even vastly more far-reaching boundaries of the spiritual universe that MAN can aspire to.

The implications of this for our future energy uses and requirements, I shall discuss in my next and final lecture. 48 III THE world wc live in, and particularly the world we are coming into, is, it seems to me, characterized by six important basic developments: the rapid world-wide increase in population; the emergence of a large number of newly independent nations, almost all of which can be classified as underdeveloped; a rapidly rising level of material expectations especially in the underdeveloped areas; the expanding influence of science and technology, and the rapidity of scientific and technologic changes; the age-old yearning of Man for a spiritually more rewarding life - a life free from the burdens of heavy, back-breaking toil and with income and leisure to enjoy not only the material comforts of living, but also to be able to dedicate oneself to the development of spiritual values - which has now opened up as a distinct possibility for human attainment; and, finally, the historic conflict between the two antagonistic political ideologies, Soviet communism and Western democracy: the former politically monolithic and economically strongly oriented toward emphasizing the power of the state, and the latter a system of political freedom with relatively widely distributed economic responsibility and power.

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