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1. 1-i) where M has the dimension of mass per unit time. In this situation, if the rate of change in the volume of air due to heating/cooling is small compared with the overall ventilation volume flux, the Boussinesq approximation applies, allowing the density of air to be treated as a constant. 1-ii) where ρ is the density of air. 1-iii) where t is time and V is the volume of the system. Obviously, solving Eq. 1-iii) is more difficult that solving Eq. 1-ii). However, a simplification may be made that treats any smooth, continuous change in the boundary conditions as a series of small discrete changes.

24 Some preliminaries Height, z z=H P > P0 Outflow Cold exterior Warm room !! !! z=h P(h) = P 0(h) Neutral level P < P0 Inflow ! 1. Neutral level and direction of flow in a warm room in a relatively cold environment. Consideration of hydrostatic pressure is key to determining the direction of flow through an opening of a building. Take a warm room with vents at two levels located in a relatively cold, unstratified environment shown in Fig. 1a. The density of air outside the room, ρ 0 , is constant, but the density of air inside, ρ, is a function of height, ρ(z).

In the context of buoyancy-driven flows this statement may be expressed by the relation 1 P + ρu2 + ρgh = constant. 3-ii) The first term of Eq. 3-ii) describes an initial pressure, the second term a change in kinetic pressure and the last term a change in hydrostatic pressure. 4. Effective opening area 27 are often as follows. The initial pressure is taken to be the atmospheric pressure exerted on the ambient fluid. The kinetic pressure is exerted as the flow comes into contact with a window, a grille or some other kind of opening on the enclosure, such as an entrance to a ventilation stack.

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