Download Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses by John A. Wagner PDF

By John A. Wagner

For centuries, historians agreed concerning the Wars of the Roses, seeing them as 4 a long time of medieval darkness and chaos, whilst the royal family members and the the Aristocracy destroyed themselves struggling with for keep watch over of the royal govt. Even Shakespeare obtained into the act, dramatizing, popularizing, and darkening this perspective in 8 plays.

Today, in response to new learn, this has develop into essentially the most hotly arguable classes in English heritage. Historians disagree on primary concerns, corresponding to dates and evidence, in addition to interpretation. such a lot argue that the consequences of the wars weren't as frequent as as soon as proposal, and a few see the normal view of the period as only Tudor propaganda. a number of even declare that England in the course of the past due fifteenth century used to be "a society equipped for peace." Historian John A. Wagner brings readers modern at the most modern learn and pondering this significant interval of England's history.

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Death of Charles VI of France; Charles VII accepted as king in areas of France outside Anglo-Burgundian control. 28 November. Birth of Richard Neville, future earl of Warwick. 8 May. English abandon siege of Orleans in France. 17 July. Charles VII is crowned king of France at Rheims. 1437 1440 1441 1442 1443 xxxiii 6 November. Henry VI is crowned king of England at Westminster. 23 May. Joan of Arc is captured by Burgundian forces. 30 May. Joan of Arc is burned at the stake for heresy in Rouen. 16 December.

1472 1473 1474 1475 1476 1477 1478 1482 Richard, duke of Gloucester, marries Anne Neville, daughter of Warwick and widow of Prince Edward of Lancaster. c. 17 August. Birth of Richard, second son of Edward IV and future duke of York. 30 September. John de Vere, the Lancastrian earl of Oxford, seizes St. Michael’s Mount on the tip of Cornwall. May. An act of Parliament attempts to settle the long-running dispute between Edward IV’s brothers, the dukes of Clarence and Gloucester, over the division of their wives’ Neville inheritance.

1 October. Elizabeth Woodville, wife of Edward IV, takes sanctuary with her children at Westminster. 2 October. Isolated in the north, Edward IV and a small party of supporters, including Richard, duke of Gloucester, flee England for Burgundy. 6 October. Warwick enters London in triumph. 2 November. Birth in sanctuary of Prince Edward, eldest son of Edward IV and future Edward V. 26 November. Readeption Parliament meets at Westminster. c. 13 December. Prince Edward of Lancaster marries Anne Neville.

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