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By R.Olufemi Ekundare

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31 March summary of facts Annual summary components British govt capital cent crucial financial institution co-operative cocoa Colonial Annual stories Colonial improvement columbite advertisement banks festival company cotton forex division tasks japanese monetary improvement firm Enugu confirmed ecu expenditure export vegetation export items manufacturing facility farmers farms Finance enterprises money Ghana govt Printer groundnuts development Ibadan imported greater incorporated expanding quantity indigenous business funding Kaduna Kano labour Lagos loans production advertising and marketing forums ment million mining nationwide Niger Nigerian executive Nigerian Railway Nigerian Railway company Northern Nigeria oil palm Onitsha operated Ordinance palm kernels palm oil interval political inhabitants Port Harcourt initiatives profit river roads Royal African Society rubber zone slave alternate social resource Southern strike activities tion plenty exchange unions shipping uk wages West Africa Western Nigeria Western zone Yoruba

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Iron rods, bracelets, manillas and cowries, simplified to some extent the payment of taxes. g. providing labour on the farm and serving as warriors. The structure and organization of the indigenous tax systems varied from one part of the country to another. The indigenous fiscal system in the emirates of Northern Nigeria was the most advanced. 'Most of the old established Hausa Kingdoms had embraced the Islamic fai~h. and under its influence they had by the early sixteenth century developed a well-organized fiscal 1 Relevant to the early conquests were the Holy War of Usman clan Fodio and the Yoruba civil wars.

6. 4 It is known that in 1857 the King ofljebu (Awujale) stopped the oil trade with the Europeans in his area. He demonstrated his firm intention by executing some natives who had been found carrying oil to markets secretly, in defiance of his orders. Tal bot, op. , p. 200. ~ T. 0. Elias, Nigerian Social and economic conditions by 186o 39 system ... ' 1 In communities conquered by the Emirs it was not unusual to raid for taxes. Such communities usually paid very heavy taxes which were arbitrarily imposed on no recognized basis, while semi-independent tribes paid just as much as their normal rulers could enforce, and were raided at will.

1 2 40 A11 ecollolllic history ~{Nigeria chiefdom, the natural ruler was responsible for allocating farmlands to the families which wanted them. Invariably every (·unily needed land, as it was the only means of providing basic foodstuffs and domestic materials. The head of a family took land from the natural ruler and, in his turn, reallocated it to a member of the family. Subject to good behaviour and to the performance of his duties cowards the chief usually on paying regular tribute in kind, the family could retain the land perpetually.

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