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Environmentally induced reductions in the vigor of trees can trigger outbreaks of some forest pests, and control techniques can be applied to areas where such conditions appear imminent (Berryman, 1981). Such techniques use a system of "risk classification" of the habitats of the pests in determining when and where to apply controls. Another successful approach is the use of a biological control agent that has a shorter generation time than the pest and that can respond to outbreaks by increasing its own population.

The other side of this coin is that such populations are able to survive long periods of adverse conditions, even if conditions favorable for reproduction occur only infrequently. Sex Ratios and Sex Biases Either intentionally or unintentionally, human activities often produce mortality differences between the sexes and thus biased sex ratios. The effects on population reproduction and dynamics depend on the form of the mating system. The degree to which differences in mortality can be controlled depends on the difficulty of distinguishing the sexes in the field.

Sex-biased harvesting can also lower genetic variability, perhaps enough to have serious consequences. Ryman et al. (1981) have shown how various moose- and deer-hunting policies can lead to loss of genetic variability, with Ne perhaps as low as 5% of N. About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted.

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