Download Drinking Water Treatment Facilities by James E. Smith PDF

By James E. Smith

Describes applied sciences for upgrading latest or designing new consuming water therapy amenities. Prefiltration, filtration, disinfection, and natural and inorganic contaminants are coated. specific recommendations for small neighborhood water remedy crops (2500-100,000 gpd) are defined, in addition to thirteen "case studies".

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Filtration technologies are discussed in Chapters 3 and 4, disinfection in Chapter 5, organic contaminant treatments in Chapter 6, and technologies that control corrosion and remove inorganic compounds and radionuclides in Chapter 7, 3. Prefiltration Treatment Elements Table 3-1. Conventional treatment is the most widely used train of processes to control microbial and turbidity levels in surface supplied drinking water. The precise order and composition of conventional treatment elements are not invariably the same, but commonly include chemical feed, rapid mix, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection.

Shorter than for mechanical mixers. The primary disadvantages are that the orifices in the injection pipe tend to become plugged and the mixing intensity cannot be varied. Figure 3-2 illustrates a jet injection mixer. Coagulant Diffusers Coagulant diffusers are also used to improve the rapid mixing process. Figure 3-3 is a schematic diagram of a coagulant diffuser. Coagulant diffusers are similar to jet-injection mixers in design, except that jet injectors are usually used in a pipe setting and coagulant diffusers are typically used in basin settings.

3 SecllOn View Coagulant dlffu..... in the flocculation basin contributing to shortcircuiting. • . '. J •. -... :: Improving Basin Circulation with Baffles Flocculation basins can be baffied to direct the movement of the water through the basin. Baffling, usually near the basin entrances and exits, can improve basin circulation and achieve more uniform flocculation. Baffles, commonly made of wood, plastic, concrete. or steel are either "over-under" or "around-the-end" in design. "Over-under" designs direct water flow either over or under the baffle.

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