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By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, Committee on District Heating and Cooling

Used traditionally in city parts yet now usually in associations, district heating and cooling structures - effective centralized power platforms that could use power assets except petroleum - have won renewed curiosity. This quantity is a nontechnical exam of the background and present quantity of district heating and cooling platforms within the usa, their expenditures and advantages, technical necessities, marketplace call for for them, and eu event with such platforms, with significant specialise in the issues of financing, legislation, and taxation. Appendixes supply case reviews of towns and cities at the moment utilizing district heating and cooling platforms.

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And, Page 5 since most serve just one customer, they do not require the same complex legal, political, and financial arrangements for implementation. In contrast to the impediments discussed above, the technology for district heating and cooling is well understood. S. manufacturers more competitive in both domestic and international markets. In particular, research is needed on improved meters, nonmetallic piping, more effective insulation, low-temperature systems, and combined district heating and cooling systems.

Numerous technologies are used to meet the thermal and electrical loads of a community, including coal- and solid waste-fired boilers, chillers, internal combustion engines, heat exchangers, and central heat pumps. District heating and cooling systems can also rely on cogeneration, the simultaneous production of electricity and thermal energy. Cogeneration recaptures much of the heat usually lost during electrical generation and uses it directly or converts it into thermal Page 14 Figure 1-2 Possible elements of district heating and cooling systems (Argonne National Laboratory).

And Baltimore metropolitan area. S. Capitol, the National Zoo, and Washington's new subway system. More recently, a third type of district heating and cooling system has emerged. These are nonprofit, usually municipally incorporated or owned systems that serve many and varied urban users. Many have replaced older urban systems operated by investor-owned utilities, as in St. Paul, Minnesota. In other cities, groups of users have combined to form nonprofit cooperatives that run systems formerly operated by investor-owned utilities, as has happened in Pittsburgh and has been proposed for Rochester, New York.

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