Download Cool thermodynamics : the engineering and physics of by Jeffrey M. Gordon PDF
By Jeffrey M. Gordon
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Extra resources for Cool thermodynamics : the engineering and physics of predictive, diagnostic and optimization methods for cooling systems
The four key steps are: (1) throttling in an expansion device (a–b) during which the refrigerant temperature falls below the temperature of the space to be cooled; (2) isobaric isothermal heat removal in the evaporator (b–c), with the refrigerant entering the evaporator as a low-quality saturated mixture and completely evaporates due to accepting heat from the refrigerated space; (3) isentropic compression (c–d) where saturated vapor is brought up to the condenser pressure and well above the temperature of the surrounding medium; and (4) isobaric heat rejection to the environment at the condenser (d–d'–a) of which branch d'–a is isothermal, with the refrigerant entering as superheated vapor and leaving as saturated liquid.
The rates of heat transfer at the condenser Q cond and evaporator Qevap are proportional to the temperature differences Thot ' – T hot and T cold – Tcold ' , respectively. Clearly, the reversible Carnot cooling cycle represents a highly idealized and limiting situation. The performance limit derived below is device-independent, just as the Carnot efficiency for heat engines is independent of how the heat engine may be constructed. The figure of merit adopted in cooling engineering is the useful effect divided by the input power, defined as the Coefficient Of Performance, or COP for short.
The derivation is similar, but we have to account for the extra heat transfers at the generator Q gen and absorber Q abs at refrigerant temperatures T gen and T abs. 14) with all energy flows defined as positive. , all heat rejection proceeds at the same temperature, and the 4-reservoir system effectively reduces to a 3-reservoir system. 14) to obtain Carnot COPabsorption chiller 1 1 Tabs Tgen . 15) For the absorption heat pump, with the useful effect being the total heat rejection, it follows that Carnot Carnot COPabsorption heat pump = COPabsorption chiller + 1.