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The study was carried out under the supervision of Vinay K. Bhargava and completed under the general direction of Joseph Goldberg. The Director is Nicholas C. Hope and the Lead Economist is Richard S. Newfarmer. 8 percent in real terms between 1978 and 1994. According to the Ninth Five-Year Plan (19952000), the Government's target for GDP in 2000 is to quadruple that in 1980, and that for GDP in 2010 is to double that in 2000. This entails an average annual growth rate of 8 percent between 1995 and 2000, and over 7 percent between 2000 and 2010.

Moreover, many universities have established Boards of Trustees in order to develop links with society and local enterprises. The roles of these Boards vary tremendously. Some Boards provide contacts with a wide range of commercial enterprises and their funds, some stress involvement of provincial or municipal government officials in university activities while others are actively involved in the actual internal management of the institutions. University organizations' structures are changing but Page xviii most new structures seem to be very flat with a relatively large number of people reporting directly to the president.

University presidents are also unable to obtain adequate information support. The present management information systems (MIS) are unable to meet the needs and demands for appropriate information in relation to decision-making. There is a massive task of training ahead in all aspects of designing and implementing integrated management information systems. Recommendations: Government Actions A professionally enhanced center can assist in strengthening the internal management of institutions by the following government actions: (a) including guidance about the role and composition of the university Governing Body or Council in its legal framework; (b) clarifying the position of universities with regard to their tax free status; (c) modifying its encouragement of the expansion of university enterprises so as to make clear the options for managing or holding investments in them; (d) encouraging universities to prepare strategic plans that are linked to the annual funding process; and (e) encouraging universities to collaborate in the costs of developing computerized management information systems.

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