Download Causation by Ernest Sosa, Michael Tooley PDF

By Ernest Sosa, Michael Tooley

This quantity provides a variety of the main influential fresh discussions of the an important metaphysical query: what's it for one occasion to reason one other? the topic of causation bears on many subject matters, similar to time, rationalization, psychological states, the legislation of nature, and the philosophy of technological know-how. members contain J.L Mackie, Michael Scriven, Jaegwon Kim, G.E.M. Anscombe, G.H. von Wright, C.J. Ducasse, Wesley C. Salmon, David Lewis, Paul Horwich, Jonathan Bennett, Ernest Sosa, and Michael Tooley.

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3. C. E. Trevelyan, ‘Collected Papers Relating to the Reorganisation of the Civil Service 1854–5’ Parliamentary Papers Vol. XX 1, p. 413. Patronage was a very potent source of influence, if not accountability. Chester, The English Administrative System, above n. 11, p. 16. 18 Wilful breach of office could lead to an action for its forfeiture, and failures to act could attract writs of mandamus19 or quo warranto. Tort law, and especially the public law torts such as false imprisonment, also played a regulatory role and focused on the person who actually committed the act.

For example, Town Improvement Clauses Act 1847. 50 9 & 10 Vict c 106. 8 & 9 Vict c118. 34 unifying political will disentangled from administrative decision-making, and increasingly becoming the product of central government initiative. The establishment of a general registration system for joint stock companies can be regarded as part of the same trend. Private Local Acts still continued to be significant in terms of their volume and the demands they placed on Parliamentary time, but a new system of central direction and control was beginning to emerge.

If the partially reformed Parliament was no longer to have a role in executive functions, how was it to scrutinize or influence an administration over which it seemed to have little or no control? If hierarchical controls were to be put in place, what should be the proper connection to Parliament? Perhaps these ways of asking these questions make a system of individual Ministerial responsibility to Parliament seem almost inevitable. It was not. Indeed, when Earl Grey stated the principle of responsible government in 1858 it was very far from the system that uniformly operated in 61 empowered to make regulations for the form of returns required of Joint Stock Companies.

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