Download Articulation and Intelligibility by Jont B. Allen PDF
By Jont B. Allen
This lecture is a overview of what's recognized approximately modeling human speech acceptance (HSR). A version is proposed, and information are verified opposed to the version.
There appear to be lots of theories, or issues of view, on how human speech popularity capabilities, but few of those theories are complete. what's wanted is a collection of types which are supported by way of experimental remark, that signify how human speech popularity rather works. eventually there's the sensible challenge of establishing a computer recognizer. a technique to do that is to construct a computer recognizer in keeping with the reversed engineering of human reputation. This has no longer been the conventional method of automated speech acceptance (ASR).
What is required is a few perception into why this massive distinction among human functionality and cutting-edge computer functionality exists. writer Jont Allen addresses this and different questions.
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After hearing one of the 16 CV sounds as labeled by the first column, the consonant that was reported is given as labeled along the top row. , “spoken” and “heard”) each run between 1 and 16. 11: Typical Miller–Nicely confusion (or count) matrix (CM) C, from Table III at −6 dB SNR. Each entry in the matrix C s ,h is the subject response count. The rows correspond to the spoken CVs, each row representing a different consonant, from s = 1, . . , 16. The columns correspond to the heard CVs, each column representing a different consonant, from h = 1, .
13) k=1 which is the generalization of Eq. 6 to K bands. The number K = 20 was a compromise that probably depended on the computation cost as much as anything. Since there were no computers, too many bands was prohibitive with respect to computation. Fewer bands were insufficient. 3: Typical results for the French and Steinberg AI model, as defined by Eqs. 16) and in Fig. 1. With permission from Allen (1994). 1947, p. 92). Each of these K articulation bands corresponds to approximately 1 mm along the basilar membrane (Fletcher, 1940, 1953, p.
2) did a good job of representing MaxEnt CVC syllable recognition, defined by S3 ≡ cvc ≈ s 3 . 3) Similarly, MaxEnt CV and VC phone recognitions were well represented by S2 ≡ (cv + vc )/2 ≈ s 2 . 4) These few simple models worked well over a large range of scores, for both filtering and noise (Rankovic, 2002). Note that these formulae only apply to MaxEnt speech sounds, not meaningful words. 4 Namely such models follow if independence is assumed, but demonstrating their validity experimentally does not prove independence.