Download Antibiotic Resistance: Understanding and Responding to an by Karl S. Drlica, David S. Perlin PDF

By Karl S. Drlica, David S. Perlin

As pathogenic micro organism evolve, antibiotic resistance is spreading, compromising our skill to manage and deal with infectious ailments. Antibiotic Resistance completely illuminates this important factor for healthcare execs, researchers, scholars, and policymakers. major investigators clarify what resistance is, the way it emerges, which human actions give a contribution, and the way to bolster our defenses.

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5% of adults. Two types of vaccine are available, one prepared against polysaccharides of 23 pneumococcal strains and the other against a nontoxic diphtheria protein conjugated to polysaccharide from 7 strains of S. pneumoniae. The former reduces the impact of disease, whereas the latter also eliminates colonization by the pathogen. Because more than 90 strains (serotypes) of S. pneumoniae have been identified, neither vaccine was expected to provide full coverage. Nevertheless, the 7-strain vaccine reduced invasive pneumococcal disease by more than 70%.

The availability of these sequences encouraged the development of many innovative diagnostic strategies based on nucleic acids. Sequence information also enabled the design of nucleic acid-based antibiotics that were expected to be highly specific. By comparison, our current antibiotics are rather crude agents. So far, few successful nucleic acid antibiotics have been developed, largely due to delivery problems. In the next chapter, we describe the major antibiotic classes to provide a context for considering resistance.

The absence of disease means no resistance problem. Unfortunately, we have been unable to make effective vaccines for many pathogens, most notably HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria. Moreover, pathogen diversity can generate resistance to a vaccine (see Box 1-4). Box 1-4: Vaccine-Resistant Pathogens Vaccines typically instruct the human immune system to recognize a pathogen and destroy it. In some circumstances, the pathogen can alter its surface properties to make it less responsive to the immune system.

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