Download Animal Cloning by Joseph, Ph.D. Panno PDF

By Joseph, Ph.D. Panno

Nature has been cloning molecules, cells, and animals for thousands of years. simply 34 years in the past, biologists started to effectively emulate this typical procedure while John Gurdon of Cambridge college cloned a frog. Nature's motivation for cloning is a query of survival, yet sleek science's motivations for accomplishing experiments in cloning are usually debatable. Animal Cloning provides the historical past and simple evidence approximately cloning and discusses the questions and controversies surrounding this rather new zone of technology. This in-depth but hugely readable quantity examines all elements of animal cloning, together with its debatable nature, from a impartial point of view. Well-written entries talk about traditional cloning and early cloning experiments starting within the Nineteen Fifties; the learn that ended in the production of Dolly, the 1st animal cloned from an grownup mobilephone; in addition to the hot sheep-human, goat-human, and pig-human hybrids scientists have experimented with utilizing cloning know-how. mammoth insurance bargains with the riding forces in the back of cloning examine, together with the creation of huge amounts of medically vital proteins akin to blood clotting issue IX, used to regard hemophilia B; human serum albumin, used to regard burn sufferers; and anti-thrombin III, an anti-clotting protein used to regard middle assault and stroke sufferers. whereas the point of interest is on animal cloning, particular assurance of human cloning is additionally awarded. Concluding this debate, a complete bankruptcy offers diversified issues of view on cloning and describes appropriate laws that has been handed or proposed within the usa, Canada, and Europe. Facilitating examine, biographies of key researchers during this new and speedy advancing quarter of technological know-how are incorporated in addition to a bibliography and thesaurus.

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Campbell also considered the cell cycle stage of the oocyte and the possible effects it might have on reprogramming G0 nuclei. All mammalian oocytes develop through meiosis I and stop at metaphase of meiosis II, at which point the duplicated chromosomes, held together at the centromeres, are lined up along the spindle. If they are never fertilized, they never complete meiosis. They are, in a sense, locked in a form of suspended animation, a condition that is controlled by maturation-promoting factor (MPF).

In 1992 there were 3,036 liver transplants performed in the United States, with 5,789 patients on the waiting list. The number of liver transplants nearly doubled by 2003, while those on the waiting list increased to more than 17,000 (see table on page 50). The one-year patient survival is better than 85 percent, although organ survival drops dramatically, to 44 percent, by the 10-year mark.

In addition, adding a nucleus to an egg without activation would expose the nucleus to high levels of MPF, which could help reprogram the transplanted nucleus. These facts were used to design three cloning protocols, referred to as MAGIC, GOAT, and UNIVERSAL, all of which use G0 nuclei: MAGIC (metaphase arrested G0-accepting cytoplast) The karyoplast, the cell donating the nucleus, is fused to the cytoplast (the enucleated egg) in calcium-free solution. Four to six hours later development is stimulated with another electric shock, this time in a solution containing calcium.

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