Download AIDS in South Asia: Understanding And Responding to a by James F. Blanchard, Han Kang, Faran Emmanuel, Sushena Reza PDF
By James F. Blanchard, Han Kang, Faran Emmanuel, Sushena Reza Paul,
South Asia's HIV epidemic is extremely heterogeneous. hence, trained, prioritized, and potent responses necessitate an figuring out of the epidemic variety among and inside of international locations. additional unfold of HIV in South Asia is preventable. the longer term dimension of South Asia's epidemic is determined by a good two-pronged procedure: to start with, at the scope and effectiveness of HIV prevention courses for intercourse staff and their consumers, injecting drug clients and their sexual companions, and males having intercourse with males and their different sexual companions; and secondly, at the effectiveness of efforts to deal with the underlying socio-economic determinants of the epidemic, and to lessen stigma and discrimination in the direction of humans carrying out excessive hazard behaviors, usually marginalized in society, in addition to humans dwelling with HIV and AIDS. This evaluate used to be undertaken to supply a foundation for rigorous, evidence-informed HIV coverage and programming in South Asia.
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South Asia's HIV epidemic is very heterogeneous. for this reason, trained, prioritized, and powerful responses necessitate an realizing of the epidemic range among and inside nations. additional unfold of HIV in South Asia is preventable. the longer term measurement of South Asia's epidemic depends upon an efficient two-pronged technique: to start with, at the scope and effectiveness of HIV prevention courses for intercourse employees and their consumers, injecting drug clients and their sexual companions, and males having intercourse with males and their different sexual companions; and secondly, at the effectiveness of efforts to handle the underlying socio-economic determinants of the epidemic, and to minimize stigma and discrimination in the direction of humans conducting excessive danger behaviors, usually marginalized in society, in addition to humans residing with HIV and AIDS.
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Extra info for AIDS in South Asia: Understanding And Responding to a Heterogenous Epidemic (Health, Nutrition and Population Series)
Unpublished reports were also gathered during these country visits. Data analysis and interpretation are the responsibility of the authors. India Epidemic Overview With approximately 40 percent of all of Asia’s population, India has more than 60 percent of the continent’s estimated HIV infections (UNAIDS 2004). The scale and heterogeneity of the country’s HIV epidemic can be appreciated by considering how India’s size and complexity resemble those of a continent in which some states and even districts are larger than many African countries.
This epidemic pattern is the most important one in South Asia; it is epitomized by the many locations with substantial high-risk sexual and IDU networks. Although HIV prevalence within those networks reaches high levels, the prevalence in the general population will not reach levels much beyond 1 to 3 percent unless a very high proportion of men (perhaps 20 percent) are clients of sex workers (NCHADS 2002). 2 Local Concentrated Epidemic high-risk network (distal) Source: Authors. bridge population high-risk network (local) local partners 10 • AIDS in South Asia limited transmission between local partners who are independent of high-risk networks.
Accordingly, prevention strategies should focus primarily on interrupting transmission at the migration destination points, with prevention message reinforcement at the origin and transit points in areas that have very large concentrations of out-migrants. Service delivery at the locations of origin should emphasize HIV counseling and testing services targeted especially to individuals with high-risk behavior, as well as care and support services. 1 schematically depicts a truncated epidemic. As we discuss later in this document, truncated epidemics are likely in many rural locations of Pakistan and India, where the local sexual structure does not support much local HIV transmission, but where a significant proportion of men out-migrate to urban areas with large commercial sex networks.