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Cobalt is, for instance, easy to magnetize along the hexagonal axis but hard to magnetize at right angles to this axis. This phenomenon is known as magnetocrystalline anisotropy; it apparently arises from the effect of electrostatic fields produced by the atoms themselves on the spin-orbital coupling, and partial quenching of the orbital contribution. There are several other sources of anisotropy. One of the most important is strain anisotropy resulting, as the name implies, from dislocations produced by mechanical strains in the sample.

Van Nostrand, New York, 1951. 16. W. Heukelom, J. J. Broeder, and L. L. van Reijen, / . chim. phys. 51, 474 (1954). 17. R. E. Dietz, Thesis, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, 1960, p. 68. 18. R. E. Dietz and P. W. Selwood, J. Chem. Phys. 35, 270 (1961). 19! J. J. B. van Eijk van Voorthuysen and P. Franzen, Rec. trav. chim. 70, 793 (1951). 20. J. W. Cahn, Trans. Am. Inst. Mining, Met. Petrol. Engrs. 209, 1309 (1959). 21. W. Trzebiatowski and W. Romanowski, Roczniki Chem. 31, 1123 (1957).

Kobozev et al. [J. Phys. Chem. R. (English translation) 33, 641 (1959)]. Certain aspects of the work reported by Kobozev appear to have anticipated later developments in the magnetic properties of very small particles, but various other claims have not been confirmed. f This and the following three sections are based primarily on the papers of C. P. 10 t It might be thought that, as is the case for paramagnetics, it would be necessary to use the Brillouin,13 rather than the Langevin function to describe the magnetization at very low temperatures.

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