Download A Student Grammar of Spanish by Ron Batchelor PDF
By Ron Batchelor
This concise creation to Spanish grammar, designed for English-speaking undergraduates, assumes no previous wisdom of grammatical terminology. It explains every one element of Spanish grammar and offers quite a number attractive routines to problem scholars. basically equipped into thirty devices, masking assorted facets of grammar, the booklet services as an important reference advisor and a entire workbook. person issues might be seemed up through a straight forward cross-referencing method, and concise definitions are supplied in an invaluable word list of grammatical phrases. The routines are compatible for either school room use and self-study.
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Etymology can be fascinating. Note also: pijama which is masculine in Spain and feminine in Mexico. Matters are not improved with this word since it is even spelt differently in Mexico: piyama. The same goes for American and British English (Pajamas [AE] / pyjamas [BE]), so it is difficult to win here. v The following are also masculine: el avi´on el gorri´on and 14 airplane sparrow el sarampi´on el cami´on measles truck but commonly bus in M 2 Definite/indefinite articles and noun gender el an´alisis el apocalipsis el ´enfasis analysis apocalypse emphasis el ´extasis el par´entesis ecstasy parenthesis vi The following types of nouns are feminine: Islands Letters of the alphabet Firms las Filipinas, las Marianas, las Malvinas, C´orcega (Corsica), Cerde˜na (Sardinia), Sicilia (last three in the Mediterranean).
That’s the easy bit. Since azucar is feminine in Mexico, you would expect the definite article preceding it to be la. But no. All Mexicans whom I have consulted make ´ it clear that they say el azucar. Furthermore, they say and write: El az´ucar es blanca / refinada / morena (brown). e. , is anyone’s guess. Here is an attempt at an explanation. 1. ii above), to deal with the spoken stress on ´ the first a. But, there is no spoken stress on the initial a of azucar. It falls on the u. Of course, Iberian Spanish requires: El az´ucar es blanco/refinado/moreno.
Hijos, for instance, could signify three sons, or two sons and one daughter, or one son and two daughters. Unfortunately, for females, even when the male is in a minority, as in the last case, the plural is still masculine. Clarification comes with, for example: dos hijos y una hija, dos hijas y un hijo. And if this still does not clear up the ambiguity, and you had three sons, you could say tres varones after tres hijos: Tiene tres hijos, o sea (that is) tres varones. e. for seeing) iii Names of towns Usually towns are feminine but practice is not always clear, and there is no true guide: en la Roma antigua, Guanajuato es bella, la atractiva Par´ıs On the other hand it is perfectly acceptable to say: todo Chihuahua/Acapulco/Valencia There seems to be no rigid rule on this point.