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By Alfred Grafe

By their powers of cause scientists might be capable of extract from nature the solutions to their questions. From: Critique of natural cause, 1781 Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), German thinker background is a composite of news. The heritage of the organic disciplines has been written by way of all those that opened the gates of latest wisdom through producing principles and the experiments to help them. earlier authors have tried quite a few methods to the background of virology, as is mirrored within the various books and book-series issuing from the publishing homes. This quantity is an try at a compre­ hensive but compact survey of virology, which has intended penetrating the inflexible limits of the separate disciplines of biology within which virologists have labored. penning this background of experimental virology used to be relatively a look for the origins and for important signposts to painting the vast scope of the data attained to this point. This was once performed in com­ plete know-how of the truth that each presentation relies seriously upon the point of view of the observer, and of necessity communi­ cates just a a part of the entire. the current clinical tale hopes to recount an important wisdom completed in this prior century - the 1st century of the interesting advancements in virology.

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Bollinger (1874) left a comprehensive description of this infectious disease which is primarily found in animals but sporadically also in man. Ideas on the nature of the causal agent ranged from fungi to protozoa as more and more new contagia were being discovered. Since FMD had been causing extensive economic damage to beef stocks, it was naturally of particular interest to develop an effective vaccine against the infection. This seemed justified after vaccines had been developed for other diseases at the 38 Microscopes and Culture Media Fail Pasteur Institute and at the institute of Robert Koch.

Although pleuropneumonia was later classified as a disease caused by a mycoplasm, Nocard's and Roux's presentation and published results exercised a great influence at that time on the experiments and the discussions about an assumed new type of causative agent. Martin in 1898. They reported it to be an in vivo method, while in reality it was an in vitro/in vivo culture, because the collodion membrane prevented the microbe contacting the host cells. Lamer, who had been present in Madrid and had had discussions with Nocard, felt that his theory of bacteria undergoing continous transitions in shape and size had been confirmed.

Maintaining the infectivity of the filtered sap was linked to the development of spores. Assessing the results of his experiments on the tobacco mosaic disease agent, it is not possible to find evidence on the nature of the causative agent. Ivanovski did not offer proof in his experiments or in his illustrations that the causal agent was a bacterium. Furthermore, there is no indication of his having suspected a new type of causative agent. Beijerinck merely substantiated his conviction that the causative agent was neither an aerobic nor an anaerobic bacterium.

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