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By William Woodruff

This booklet investigates the key adjustments in global background and international economic system in past times years and explains to what quantity international forces were accountable for shaping either earlier and current. Its underlying subject matter is the fight for energy within which, because the 16th century, the West has prevailed. a number of the difficulties of the modern global - together with terrorism - are the legacy of the interval of Western domination. till the increase of the West, and its incomparable impression on each department of human job, the centre of the realm has been in Asia. by way of the 19th century global energy used to be firmly within the palms of the West. America's later upward push to international prestige used to be brought on by means of the 2 global wars. the main trendy of the Western international locations, the united states is now blamed for all of the excesses of an previous colonial age.

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Land-locked Russia has always sought access to the warm seas. Catherine's wars against the Turks (1768-1772 and 1787-1792) eventually brought the northern shores of the Black Sea under Russian control. Odessa was founded in 1795 on the Black Sea as an outlet for Russian exports. Two windows - one in the Baltic, the other in the Black Sea had been opened by Russia on the world. In 1772, 1793, and 1795, Russia divided up the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with Austria and Prussia. Poland was again partitioned (the lion's share going to Russia) by the same powers at the Congress of Vienna in 1815.

When Philip died in 1598, the official debt of 20 million ducats, which he had inherited, had risen to 100 million. The bulk of his revenues were being consumed by debt payments. Some scholars, such as Werner Sombart, 39 ascribe 24 A Concise History of the Modern World Spain's penury to the persecution of the Jews. The Inquisition (a chilling example of the dreadful extremes to which religious bigotry will go), 40 Sombart argued, drove from Spain the best Jewish financial talent. H. Tawney (1880-1962), 42 place greater stress on the Protestant spirit which enabled both Britain and Holland to outstrip Spain.

To guard itself from being inundated by Asians (the implications of Japan's defeat of China in 1895 and of Russia in 1904-1905 were not lost on Australia's leaders) in 1902 Australia introduced its Immigration Restriction (White Australia) Policy. By this time the number of aborigines had undergone a dramatic decline: victims of acute cultural shock, of European sicknesses and alcohol, illarmed, and insufficiently aggressive to meet the Western intrusion, they were overwhelmed by the ever-growing tide of white immigrants.

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